The history of the city of Chartres can be traced back to before the Gallo-Roman period when it was a settlement occupied by the Carnutes, a Celtic tribe. There is evidence that it was razed and destroyed by the Norman invaders in 858! Walls failed to keep them out!
The remnants of walls built by successive generations of occupants of the city may be seen when walking through the narrow streets. The futility of seeking safety behind walls becomes so obvious that current obsessions with wall building defies reason ... walls encourage ingenuity and invention on how to get around them, under them, over them or simply straight through them!