It is unlikely that a visitor to present-day Le Bugue would realise that the town has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Its strategic position on the Vezere River was probably recognized by its earliest inhabitants.
In 964 a Benedictine monastery was founded in Le Bugue, but the last remnants of the building were destroyed in the 19th century. Prior to the arrival of the railway line linking Perigueux and Agen, Le Bugue enjoyed a period of prosperity as a river port. The Le Bugue Tuesday market has been held every week since November 1319, when the King of France, Philippe Le Long ordered that it be held in perpetuity from that date!